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I r^Ta 



(hi ) 



See "La guerre santa al centro della teologica biblica, 'shalom' e la purificazione de Gerusalemme," Studi 
Storici 3 (2002), 663-692. For an Arabic translation of this paper see my article: "Holy War at the Center of 
Biblical Theology: Shalom and the Cleansing of Jerusalem", Jerusalem in ancient History and Tradition 
(London and New York: T&T Clark Intl., 2003; Arabic translation: Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies, 
2003). 



(i3? )(m 



1. Th. L. Thompson, The Bible in History: How Writers Create a Past (London: Cape, 1999); Thompson, The 
Mythic Past: Biblical Archaeology and the Myth of Israel (New York: Basic, 1999), xv-xvi. Thompson, 
"Historiography in the Pentateuch: Twenty-Five Years After Historicity", Scandinavian Journal Forjhe Old 
Testament 13. no. 2(1999): 258. ( UM^ #^S:Za| atf &■} kS KOE nfemd® CS^lBUSPApla/pi^fe] 

.[(2003 Qoo l ) tibSg j k§ :CP& 

2. L. L. Grabbe, Can aHistory of Israel Be Written? European Seminar on Historical Methodology 1 (Sheffield: 
SAP, 1997); Th. L. Thompson, "Can a History of Ancient Jerusalem and Pabestine Be Written?" in 
Jerusalem in Ancient History and Tradition (London: T&T Clark, 2003), 1-15. 

3. Here one might consider two important recent works: N. Silberman and I. Finkelstein, The Bible Unearthed: 
Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts (NewYork: Free Press, 
2001); and M. Liverani, Oltre La Bibbia: Storia antica di Israele (Rome: Laterza, 2003), which will appear in 
English [and Arabic, Cadmus]. For a short view of the problems of writing history, see N. P. Lemche, 
Prelude to Israel's Past: Background and Beginnings of Israelite History and Identity (Peabody, Mass: 
Hendrickson, 1998); Lemche, The Israelites in History and Tradition (Louisville: Westminster, 1998). 

4. Biblical citations usually use the Revised Standard Version (1946) of the Jerusalem Bible (Jerusalem: 
Koren, 1992), both slightly adjusted to fit better the Hebrew, Aramaic or Greek. Occasionally the 
translations are my own. 

5. I. Hjelm, The Samaritans and Early Judaism A Literary Analysis (She ffield: SAP, 2000);Hjelm, Jerusalem's 
Rise to Sovereignty: Zion and Gerizim in Competition (London:T&T CLARK international, 2004). 



(2iT )<3B$£K)ft (MJ(i/i 



For a summery of the current debate, we have now some excellent discussions in German, specially G. 
Theissen und A.MERZ, Der historiche Jesus: Ein Lehrbuch (G6TTINGEN, 1996) and J.Schroter and R. 
Brucker, eds. Der historische Jesus: Tendenzen und Perspektiven der gegenwartigen Forschung, BZNW 114 
(Berlin: De Gruyter, 2002); in Danish T. Engberg-Pedersen, ed. Den historische Jesus og hans Betydning 
(Copenhagen, 1998) is recommended. In English, the bibliographz is large and often stridentlz tendentious. 
J.P.Meier, A Marginal Jew: Rethinking in Historical Jesus, 3 vols., Anchor Bible Reference Libarary (New 
York: Double day, 1991) is an easly accessable introduction. Briefer, but hardly superficial is the discussion 
in B.D. Ehrman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millenium (Cambridg: Oxford University Press, 
1999). 



332 



2. A. Schweitzer, Geschichte der Leben-Jesus Forschung 2" . ed. (Tubingen: Mohr-Siebeck, 1913; the Quest 
For the Historical Jesus, 1910). 

3. J.G. Eichhorn, Einleitung in das Alte Testament, 3 vols. (Gottingen, 1780-1783; Introduction to the study of 
the Old Testament, 1888); Eichhorn, Einleitung in das Neue Testament, 2 vols. (Gottingen, 1804-1827). 

4. W.M.L.de Wette, A Critical and Historical Introduction to the Canonical Scriptures of the Old Testament 
(1817; Eng. Trans. With notes by T.Paker, 1843), pp. 38-39. De Wette's understanding of the myth found in 
modern restatement in R. Otto, The Idea Of The Holy (1951). 

5. Two Studies are most important: D. F. Straus, Das Leben Jesus Kritisch bearbeitet, 2 vol. (1835-1836; Life 
of Jesus, 1906); and Straus, The Christ of Faith and the Jesus of History: Acritique of Schleiermacher's Life 
of Jesus(1864; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977). 

6. L.Feuerbach, Das Wesen des Christentums (1841; the Essence of Christianity, 1854). 

7. J.Weiss, Jesus proclamation of the Kingdom of God (1892; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1971). 

8. W.Wrede, Das Messiasgebeimnis in den Evangelien: Zugleich ein Beitrag Zum Verstandnis des 
Markusevan- geliums (1901; The Messianic Secret in the Gosples, 1971). 

9. B.D.Ehrman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millenium (Cambridge: Oxford University Press, 
1999). 

11. For a Fine discussion of the nature and function of Q in New Testament scholarship, see J. S. Kloppenborg 
Verbin, Excavating Q: The History and setting of the Sayings Gospel (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 2000). 

12. This theory was first proposed by James Robinson, "Logoi sophon': on the Gattung of Q," in J.Robinson 
and H.Koester, Trajectories through Early Christianity (Philadelphia: Fortress: 1971), 71-113; see also 
H.Koester, 'Apocryphal and Canonical Gospels," Harvard Theological Review 73-(1980): 105-130. 

#j|& 7% .B^aa | aZ ko lICEaa aOijgpOpg h&Ob% o#6 ^QMlpj 7&& 0® (13 
kb?Or\ llR/Utbiaa | aEUafcag/fetf ffit$^3(|£$!f B/B$0&Z fezfySfS 
e^a(gy^|n^Slj i^lt ^e^aZoa^acbgfetf J<^>7iM^Q^M(B,0o§ds^^ 
^0oa20aa^Ji^J(||l[alli tik(m$b?g gjr K$Zf (ll^Bm^Og c%0<lk0($ 

J. Kloppenborg. The Formation Of Q: Trajectories in Ancient Wisdom > ' 
Kloppenborg, Q Parallels: synopsis, Critical Notes and Concordance > Uuollections, (Fortress: Philadelphia) 1987 

.<(Sonoma. Calif: Polebridge, 1988) 

. <Kloppenborg, Excavating Q > /TGfDaRpfi/Sf Cfc|$ ($ ^6 

15. R-W. Funk and R.W.Hoover, Five Gospels, one Jesus: what did Jesus Really say? (Sonoma, Calif: 
polebridge, 1992). 

16. For a discussion of the debates of the seminar with the publication of the proposed text of Q, see the 
multivolume summery od commentaries and discussions in J.M. Robinson, P.Hoffmann, and J. S. 
Kloppenborg, Documenta Q: Reconstructions of Q through Two Centuries of Gospel Research: Excerpted, 
sorted, and Evaluated (Leuven: peeters, 1996). 

17. Ehrman, Jesus, chap. 7. 

18. M. Borg, Conflict, Holiness, and Politics in the Teachings of Jesus, Studies in the Bible and Early 
Christianity 5 (Toronto: Mellen, 1984). 

19. M. Borg, "A Temperate Case For a Non-Eschatological Jesus," Forum 2 (1986): 81-102. 

20 R. A. Horsley, Jesus and the spiral of violence: popular Jewish Resistance in Roman Palestine (San 
Fransisco: Harper & Row, 1987; Horsley, Sociology and the Jesus Movement (New York: Crossroad, 1989); 
and Horsley, With J.S.Hanson,Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs: popular Movements in the Time of Jesus 
(New York: sea bury, 1985).21. the writings of E. J. Hobsbawm, specially Primitive Rebels (New York: 
Norton, 1965); Hobsbawm, Bandits (New York: Delacorte, 1969); and E.R. Wolf, Peasants (Englewood 
Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall, 1966). 

22. the bibliography is large, but the pioneering studies in biblical scholarship include G. Theissen, The Miracle 
stories of the Early Christian Tradition (1972; Philadelphia: Fortress, 1983);Theissen, Sociology of Early 
Christianity (Philadelphia, Fortress, 1978); and N.K.Gottwald The Tribes of Yahweh, A Sociology of the 
Religion of Liberated Israel, 1250-1050 B.C.E (New York: MaryKnoll. 1979); Gottwald, The Politics of 
Ancient Israel (Louisville: Westminster, 2001). 

23. The problems of such harmonized reconstructions are quite common ib biblical studies . a thorough criticism 
of these methods can be found in Th. L. Thompson, The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narrative: The Quest 
For the Historical Abraham, 3rd ed. (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1974). 



333 



24. Horsley, Bandits,48-87; J. D. Crossan The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant 
(Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1991), 137-206. 

25. See especially the critique of M. D.Goulder, Midrash and Lection in Matthew (London: SPCK, 1974). 

Cym ^KXgK rvfcpl daK^e^l UBA&jib ftlB&BE/fc <&EiMM$ti&&& Z 0& (26 

J. B. Prichard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Related to the old Testament, > /WGfDfi$B?Y$ t YOfQ (^KPlAl^S ■ ■ $$E 

.<ANET (Princeton: Princeton University press 1969), 421-425 

27. ANET, 421. 

28. Besides The Historical Jesus mentioned above, one should also consult J. D. Crossan, Sayings Parallels: A 
Workbook for the Jesus Tradition (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986). 

29. B. Mack, A Myth of Innocence: Mark and Christian Origins (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988); Mack, The Lost 
Gospel: The Book of Q and Christian Origins (San Francisco: Harper, 1993). 

30. J. D. Crossan, The Historical Jesus:The Life Of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant (Edingburgh: T&T Clark, 
1991), 227. 

Crossan, Historical Jesus, 227-8 > Z (apocalyptic /tb|S| GE0t^?Cl^L HJ\5§ <j t$ U^pK^j M) I (jflR (31 



32. H. Koester, Introduction to the New Testament (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1982), 2:121-122, on 1 Corinthians 
7; S.Davies, The Gospel of Thomas and Christian Wisdom (New York; Seabury, 1983),83; and 
Kloppenborg, Formation of Q, 244-245. 

33. For a discussion of on the segmented nature of biblical literature, see Th. L. Thompson, "4Q testimonia and 
Bible Composition: A Copenhagen Lego,Hypothesis in Qumran Between the old and New Testaments, ed. 
F.Cryer and Th. L. Thompson, Copenhagen International Seminar 6 (Sheffield: SAP, 1998), 261-276. 

34. In this, Crossan, Historical Jesus, 238-239 Follows Marcus Borg, "A Temperate Case For a Non-Escha to 
logical Jesus," Forum 2 (1986): 81-102. 

35. Crossan, Historical Jesus, 239-240, referring to the visions of Daniel in chapters 7-9 and 10-12 and to Enoch 
46:1-4, an understanding that Mogens Miiller disputed in M. Muller. Der Ausdruck "Menschensohn" in den 
Evavngelien (Leiden: Brill, 1984). 

36. A related effort with the writings of Paul has been developed by T. Engberg-Petersen, Paul and the Stoics 
(Louisville: Westminster, 2000), esp)m esp. 33-44. 

37. Mack, Lost Gospel, 237-243. 

38. Mack, Lost Gospel, 219. 

39. A. Clarke Wire, Holy Lives, Holy Deaths: A Close Hearing of Early Jewish storytellers (Atlanta: SBL, 
2001). 

40. M. Parry and A.Lord, Serbo-Croatian Heroic Songs, 2 vols. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960); 
A. Lord, The Singer of Tales (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1960); F.M. Foley, The Theory of oral 
Composition (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988); Foley, The Singer of Tales in Performance 
(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1955); also the study of oral Forms by A.Jolles, Einfache Formen 
(Halle: Niemeyer, 1929); D.E.Bynum, Daemun in the wood: Astudy of oral Narrative Patterns (Cambridge: 
Harvard University Press, 1978); A.Dundes, "Text, Texture, and Context", Southern Folklore Quarterly 
20(1965): 251-261; D. Ben-Amos, "Narrative Forms in the Haggadah Ph-D diss., Indiana University 1967; 
Ben- Amos, Folklore in Context: Essays (New Delhi, 1982). 

41. Clark Wire, Holy Lives, 10-11. 

42. Clark Wire, Holy Lives, 6. 

43. D.Gunn, The story of King David (Sheffield: SAP, 1978); Gunn, The Fate of King Saul (Sheffield: SAP, 
1980); D.Irvin, Mytharion: The Comparison of Tales From the old Testament and Ancient Near East 
(Newkirchen, 1978); Th. L. Thompson and D.Irvin, "The Joseph and Moses Narratives", in Israelite and 
Judaean History, ed.J Hayes and J-M. Miller (Philadelphia: Westminster 1977), 147-212; Th. L. Thompson; 
"A New Attempt to Date the Patriarchal Narratives," Journal of the American Oriental Society 98 (1978): 
76-84. 

44. Clarke Wire, Holy Lives, 84-85. 

45. For a discussion of these tales and their theological function see Th. L. Thompson, The Bible in History: 
How Writers Create a Past (London: Cape, 1999); Thompson, The Mythic Past: Bibbical Archeology and 
the Myth of Israel (New York: Basic, 1999), 337-352 

46. N. Wyatt, "Arms and the King", Und Moses Schrieb dieses Lied auf (NeuKirden, 1998), 833-881; Wyatt, 
"The Mythic Mind', Scandinavian Journal For the old Testament 15 (2001): 3-56; Th. L. Thompson, 
"Kingship and the Wrath of God: or Teaching Humility," Revue biblique 109 (2002): 161-196. 

47. ANET, 589-601. 

48. G. Lambert, Babylonian Wisdom Literature (Oxford: Clarendon, 1960), 21-56; ANET, 589-601. 

49. ANET, 601-604. 



334 



50. ANET, 426-27. 

51. ANET, 427-430. 

>^gx»ijkjiH£^^ (52 

A.Harrak, "Tales About Sennacherib," in The World of the Arameans, ed.P.M.Michele Daviau (Sheffield: 

.<SAP, 2001), 168-189 

53. ANET, 410. 

54. W. Anderson, Kaiser und Abt: Die Geschichte eines Schwanks, Folklore Fellows Communications 42 
(Helsinki, 1923). 

55. S. Thompson, Motif Index of Folk Literature, 6 vols. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1955-1958). 

56. Th. L. Thompson, "4 Q Testimonia and Bible composition:A Copenhagen Lego Hypothesis", in Qumran 
Between the old and New Testaments, ed F.C.Cryer and Th.L. Thompson (SAP: Sheffield, 1998), 261-276. 



(57? )fj&)f$ (2/1 



1. For example, E. P. Sanders, Jesus and Judaism (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985); Sanders, The Historical Figure 
of Jesus (London: Penguin, 1993); B. Ehrmann, The New Testament: A Historical(Introduction to the Early 
Christian Writings (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997); Ehrman, Jesus: Apocalyptic prophet of the 
New Millenium (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999). 

2. Ehrmann, Jesus, 33. 

Sanders, Historical Figure > i^Gf^- 3 :3 ff^ff^fCiiZ Q ?Q$Z, ^/^^ok^dOMfiZkb^Or] (3 

.<Of Jesus, 68-70 

.<Bart Ehrman, Jesus > J 

5. J. Taylor, "The coming of Eliah, Mt 17, 10-13 and Mark 9, 11-13: Th Development of the Texts" Revue 
biblique98(1991): 107-119. 

6. So M. Miiller, Kommentar til Mattaeusevangeliet, 383-385, and most commentaries. 

7. For birth stories in the Bible, see Th. L. Thompson, The Bible in History: How Writers Create a past 
(London: Cape, 1999); Thompson, The Mythic past: Biblical Archaeology and the Myth Of Israel (New 
York: Basic, 1999), 323-371, esp. 350-2. For this themes's earlier ancient Near Eastern context, see Th. L. 
Thompson and D. Irvin, "The Joseph and Moses Narratives" in Israelite and Judaean History ,ed.J.H.Hayes 
and J.M.Miller (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1977), 149-212 esp. 181-209.; for further comparisons of this 
theme, see A. Clark Wire, Holy Lives, Holy Deaths: A Close Hearing of Early Jewish Story tellers, studies 
in Biblical Literature 1 (Atlanta: SBLM 2002), 25-101; R.Laurentin, Les evangiles de L' enfance du Christ; 
Verite de Noel au-dela des mythes ((Paris, 1982); R.E.Brown, The Birth of the Messiah: A Commentary on 
the Infancy Narratives in Mathew and Luke (Garden City, N.Y: Doubleday, 1993); RA. Horsley, The 
Liberation of Christmas: The Infancy Narratives in Social Context (New York: Crossroad, 1993); and O. 
Daviden, Christi Fodsel: Tekster og tolkingerar to tusind (Hoved land: Hojberg, 2000) 

8. Thompson, Bible in History, 352-374. 

9. Thompson, "How Yahweh Became God: Exodus 3 and 6 and the Center of the Pentaeueh", Jot 8 (1994); 
Thompson, "Form the Mouth of Babes, Strenght: Psalm 8 and the Book of Isaiah," JSOT 16 (2002): 226- 
245. 

10. O. L. Loretz, Ugarit und die Bibel (Darmstadt, 1990), 163-164. 

1 1 . On chain narratives and their patterned introductions, see Th. L. Thompson. The Origin Tradition of Ancient 
Israel (Sheffield: SAP, 1987), 155-189. 

Z C2E&E gOij &BT$ CflHf #g feiZ m^(gMlffi$0ify Z (Msr©taf§d&Z4 a (12 
Z fypZ g %>a^ash^^LB0id^di^a©§9^ qRi^LTE/Y0®(Dura Europos /QJfeOi 



13. see the discussion on the "designated outsiders" in G. Jackson, "Have Merely on Me",Copenhagen 
International Seminar 10 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2002), 61-70. 

14. ANET, Tablet VI. 68-70. 

15. For more on this theme, see Hjelm, Jerusalem's Rise to sovereignty: Zion and Gerizim in Competition 
(London: T and T Clark International, 2004), 276. 284. 

16. See I. Hjelm, The Samaritans and Early Judaism: A Literary Analysis (Sheffield: SAP, 2000), 125. 

17. Thompson, Bible in Historty, 317-322. 



335 



18. See, on the issue of supersessionism in early Judaism, Hjelm, The Samaritans and Early Judaism, 120-123; 
Hjelm Jerusalem's Rise to soveignty. 

19. This discussion of Isaiah's children and the Assyrians follows Hjelm Jerusalem's Rise to Soveignty. 

Ul-7:66>i&U^Z<iafc$19:13$^ZAjtf)'^ (20 

.(3 :37 B UU8- 17 :20 Cfe^i (PldOET §j ^^SBJE£#*0 (&6 :3 d$((Pj"#) 

21. On the trait of the Abraham stories, see Th. L. Thompson, The Origin Tradition of Ancient Israel (Sheffield 
Academic Press, 1987), 158-160. 



(113? )g^JRoJp(3/i 



1. Crossan, Historical Jesus, 265-271. 

2. For a very different view, see A. Wire, "The structure of the Gospel Meracle stories", Semeia 1 1 (1978): 83- 
113. 

3. See Crossan, Historical Jesus, 310-313; however, Crossan interests himself in a possible chain of tales prior 
to Mark's use of the stories. See also R. T. Fortna, The Gospel of Signs: A Reconstruction of the Narrative 
Sources Underlying the Fourth Gospel (Cambridge University press, 1970); PAchtmeier, Toward the 
Isolation of Pre-Markan Miracle Catenae", Journal of Biblical Literature 89 (1970); 263-291; Achtmeier, 
"The Origin and Function of the pre-Markan Miracle Catenae; Journal of Biblical Literature 91 (1972): 198- 
221, tries to reconstruct a collection of miracle stories existing prior to Mark's gospel; B. L. Mack, Mark and 
Christian Origin: A Myth of Innocence (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988), 216-223. 

^lL<2faEe&k&($i^wiffi£ ^a<±i^G^ Region /^iil^ac^K/«6aE (4 



5. Hjelm Jerusalem's Rise to soveignt, 221-230. 

6. Crossan, Historical Jesus XXVII-XXXIV. 

7. Crossan, Historical Jesus XXXIII. 

-120 U20-80 Q0-66 Qo-30 :(E^^Dg4SB^Eja^bistorical Jesus (XXI>j2^Zj M¥02,Jft(y\ [S 

.ya lso 

9. Crossan, Historical Jesus xxxiii and 436. 

A. Clark Wire, Holy Lives, Holy Deaths: Aclose Hearing of Early Jewish story tellers, > L/cfflDc^ltDBL) LASSBf-0 bO 

."studies in Biblical Literature, 1 (Atlanta: society of Biblical Literature, 2002) 

11. So Crossan, Historical Jesus, 266-267. 

12. Such as Albert Huck/ Heinrich Greeven, synopsis of the First three Gospels: with the Addition of the 
Johannine parallels, 13 th ed. (Tubingen: Mohr, 1981), 176-179. 

13. Hjelm, Jerusalem's Rise to soveignty, 83-84, 238-239. 

14. E.J. Stephens, "Prayer of Lamentation to Ishtar", in J.B.Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to 
the old Testament (Princeton University press, 1969), 384, Lines 54-60. Hereafter ANET. 

15. Hjelm, Jerusalem's Rise to soveignty, 83-84, 238-239. 

Ctt^^e^^B^^tM/W^i Kli^^il3aat©jialclttBAi®9ipZ (i6 
A^i Gb^ aj AlC^ %KHCg o^Z q4j ELUBaYgkbg aj M/B& Qk &$&\ ClefeHa 
yCifS2&KGJI G^e li ^^ffl^U<rose P hus, Antiquities xviii 29-30 > OC0a(|M (31 <§ifi\&i ^ftjiS 

. < 1 Ijelm, Samaritans and Early Judaism, 251 > Pi GpfflfxUMiaL 

. < Kommentar til Mattaesevan geliet, 439 > K ^MBQ Al^JLIZ /0K^^nJnQJ^Vl 111 ^ d8$) (l7 

18. Thompson, Bible in History, 323-374. 

19. Tablet I. 11.80-84. 

g^p Bfo) ^p0jaZ6% aOAl (a6£B«)ti^peZ[l,S0$ 6§f aOAl SfMn^/E^ (20 

.<P. J. P. Van Hecke, Lamentations 3: 1-6: An Anti psalm 23 (Forthcoming) > i 



336 



I. Hjelm and Th.L. Thompson, "The Victory song of Merneptah", > /flGJjWE flp(5F(l(^9cl fi0 IJdZ, 68 1^ (21 

.Journal for the study of the old Testament 27 (2002): 3-18 

.(31-29) ZM^ a$e§(2o-i8) D®i6^a$e 1&9-36) yjfilUg 4^fe^3a /^iZ/E^Ma (22 

. <Hjelm Jerusalem's Rise to soveignty> Al QBttDl UtHE Z. Cr$|rCj IsJ^iUDj 

23. Kitabal-Tarikh of Abul' Fath, trans. Paul Stenhouse, studies in Judaism, Vol. 1 (Sidney: University of 
Sidney press, 1985), 115-116. 

V.K.Robbins, Jesus the Teacher: A socio-Rhetorical > ! (BjpIplGSdiHS^lGpUB t rlw© ^dc^E pf)E (jNTlL/tKb (jnji (24 

.<Interpretationof Mark (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1992), esp. 75-107 



(169? )Es^/tdj#8q(*/i 



1. Mack, Lost Gospel, 155. 

2. Mack, Lost Gospel, 86. 

3. J. S. Kloppenborg Verbin, Excavating Q: The History and Setting of the sayings Gospel (Edinburgh: T&T 
Clark, 2000), 68-109; Mack, Lost Gospel, 83; J.D. crossan, The Historical Jesus: the Life of a Medi 
terranean Jewish peasant (Edin burgh: T&T Clarke, 1991), 270-274. 

4. ANET, 379. 

5. ANET, 378-379. 

6. the implied reference is to G. E. Wright, The old Testament Against Its Environment (London: SCM press, 
1950). 

7. ANET, 602-604. 

M Z IrysdSk^^BSl (35- 13) B Gfife Z oM#ft («i2-i)illzg ^Sja/tfeT 4$i (s 
6^ (3fe^pE(aGDe(3 Q25- 24 U2 B Gfife Z L. t <^| g^lideME#^ (23 Ui- 13)^1 

>S cj5U§B a ^Hi >5ddBla4 cpbffiiS^rES4Ei^5 (fts :ss- 1 :4o) 4@l UZ g^BiffEaL&FT e^Sef n. 

.(24:66-1 :56)^L£cfBIa6)|^g(BgadtEi 

(»Y<adM)iZ.^rv^?^io-i:35^ (9 

10. Hjelm and Thompson, "Victory Song of Merneptah", 6. 

11. F. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated: The Qumran Texts in English (Leiden: Brill, 1994), 
203-205. 

12. Garcia Martinez, Dead Sea Scrolls, 337-338. 

13. Garcia Martinez, Dead Sea Scrolls, 348-385. 

14. Garcia Martinez, Dead Sea Scrolls, 394. 

15. On the knowledge of and distribution of biblical literature in the Dead Sea scrolls, see J. Vanderkam, The 
Dead Sea Scrolls Today (Grand Rapids, Mich: Eerdmans, 1994). 

16. Garcia Martinez, Dead Sea Scrolls,303-304; 365. 

17. Garcia Martinez, Dead Sea Scrolls, 189. 

1 8 . Garcia Martinez, Dead Sea Scrolls, 116-117 

.aJ^&&.doi?^2)AsZM^e^^/^a^^0 §& (19 



(211 T )iMyiJ3g0il/2 



for the creation of such complex chains, see Th. L. Thompson, The Origin Tradition of Ancient Israel 
(Sheffield: SAP, 1987), 155-189. 

This problem plagues New Testament studies, as in the analasys of Q and the Gospel of Thomas in the Jesus 
seminar (Kloppenborg, Excavating Q; Mack, Lost Gospel; Crossan, Historical Jesus), and has been 
particularly bothersome in Old Testament research of the prophetic books. R. Caroll, The Wolf in the 
sheepfold: Bible as problematic for theology (London: Scm press, 1991). 



337 



[ !LHilv4K) 0?cbi|^(|$C&P^Z g %bb OiK0l ^origin Tradition, pp. i99f> a /^6 Z (3 

4. Thompson, The Origin Tradition, 51-59. 

5. Compare 1 Sam 13 and 15; 2 Kgs 18:2-7; ANET, 159b. 

6. ANET, 6a-8a; lOb-llb; 253a-253b. 

7. ANET, 365-367. 

8. ANET, 365-367. 

9. Hjlem and Thompson, "Victory song of Merneptah" 

10. See M.Liverani, Prestige and Interest: International Ralations in the Near East: Ca 1600-1 100 Be, History of 
Ancient Near East 1 (Padua, 1990); Th. L. Thompson, "Kingship and the Wrath of God, or Teaching 
Humility", Revue biblique (109) 2000: 161-196; Hjelm and Thompson, "Victory Song of Merneptah"; 
N.Wyatt, ,Myths of Power: a study of Royal Myth and Ideology in Ugaritic and Biblical Tradition, UBL 13 
(Minister, 1996). 

1 1 . The result of this study are presented in Th. L. Thompson,'A Testimony of the Good King: Reading the 
Mesha stele",in L.L.Grabbe, Seminar For Historical Methodology(Forth coming). 

12. M.Liverani, "Partire sul Carro, Peril deserto," AION 32 (1972): 403-415 ; J. Sasson, "on Idrimi and Sarruwa 
the scribe", in Nuzi and the Hurrians, ed. D.Owens (Winona Lake, I nd.: Eisenbrauns, 1981), 309-324. 

13. Hjelm and Thompson, "VICTORY Song of Merneptah". 

M.Liverani, prestige and Interest: International Relations in the Near East (Padua, 1990); B.Oded, War, > 
peace and Empire: Justifications for War in Assyrian Royal Inscriptions (Wiesbaden, 1992); Hjelm, 

.Jerusalem's Rise to sovereignty, esp. 130-142 

15. See already A. Hermann, Die agyptische Konings-novelle (Gliickstadt, 1938); and especially BAlbrektson, 
History and the Gods: An Essay on the Idea of Historical Events as Divine Manifestations in the Ancient 
Near East and in Israel (Lund, 1967); see more recently, H.W.F. Saggs, Encounter With the Divine in 
Mesoptamia and Israel (London, 1978). 

16. Th. L. Thompson, "Kingship and the Wrath of God: or Teaching Humility", Revue biblique 109 (2002): 
161-196. 

QffiEV^^m$M^k$ QScIsR^net 373-375>z0ffitpdl^c?^^licbQ; (17 
> Zoglz/lT Qp^^Mdd^lANET, 375-376 >kGJ$MfifytfQ G&Q&SE £n^6g az£§ 

Z, N ($tjaGQ Se^CtbQSjUr.Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol. 3 (London, 1906-1907), Sec. 116-117 
J.A. Wilson, Historical Records of Ramses, vol.3 SAOC 12 (Chicago: University of >ZQ(ifiSE |£r0l 06 

.Chicago press, 1936), 111-112 
W.W.Hallo, The Concept of scripture, vol.2, Monumental Inscriptions from >^<ANET, 376>/ 
Thompson, >^T(^l(B£)^E^Wiaa4§Ze^3i(ErG^.<the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill, 2000), 40-41 

.<'Wrath of God", and Hjelm and Thompson, "Victory song of Mernptah" 

18. Th. L. Thompson, "He Is Yahweh; He Does What Is Right in His Own Eyes: the old testament as a 
theological Discipline II," tro og Historie, Forum For Bibelsk Eksegese 7 (Frederiksberg: Museum 
Tusculanum, 1996), 242-262. 

19. Th. L. Thompson, "From the Mouth of Babes: strength, Psalm 8.3 and the Book of Isaiah," JSOT 16 (2002): 
226-245; Thompson, "Historie og teologi overskrifterne til Davids salmer" Collegium Biblicum Arbog, 
1997,88-102. 

20. M. Liverani, "the Ideology of the Assyrian Empire" in Power and Propaganda", ed.M.T.Larsoen 
(Copenhagen, 1979), 297-317; Oded, War, Peace and Empire, 155-157; Hjelm, Jerusalem's Rise to sover- 
eignty, 139. 

21. Ahlstrom, History of Ancient Palestine, 755. 

l(Mfc<^ JQ&Z\J(^kfi$ jgfiQfe (22 

(ANET, 276); Thompson, > Y&p }?$?% &&$ M/V,6^[^\ QtEflSloK^ =<C)kDZ^0ep> 

.<"WrathofGod" 



338 



23. Tablet l.i. 8-10. 16-19. 

24. Tablet 11.304-308. 

) $M& Z 46 9f EtaCQZGaaytoa ^SM^r aj g%l&- i :9) a#$M l&i- s :2s) 4&M (25 

.(l9-8 :9 O^Gl :1 ift5 U4-10 :29) 46CW"OP (26 

PM#?^ A 3 ?/i aj ^MfeLB^ll. D®4^© c£ Ao lM!^^<±i^ AbfcT 3 (27 

.<CF. Hallo, Context of Scripture, 2: 306> li§3§ l<@ d$?^£&Etj3l 
Q.3B0&ANET, 378-379>3liE£rBaYfi^/£Y^^^ (28 



29. Thompson, Bible in History, 217-227. 

30. Hallo, Context of scripture, vol.1, Canonical Composition From the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill, 1997), 
477-478. 

31. See the discussion in C. J. Gadd,, "The Harran Inscriptions of Nabonidus", Anatolian Studies 8(1958): 35- 
92; T.Longman, Fictional Akkadian Autobiography, 97-103; Hallo, Context of Scripture, 1: 477-478; ANET, 
311-312,560-562. 

32. H. Hoffner, "Propaganda and Political Justification in Hittite Historiography", in Unity and Diversity: Essays in the 
History, Literature and Religion of the Ancient Near East, ed. H. Goedicke J.J.M. Roberts (Baltimore: Johns 
Hopkins University press, 1975) 49-62; Hallo, Context of scripture, 1: 194-198. 



(257T )A/S^^Baa(2^a^G§lj(2/2 



1. See, For example, H. Niehr, Der hochste Gott, BZAW 190 (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1990); Th.L. Thompson, 
"The Intellectual Matrix of Early Biblical Literature: Inclusive nonotheism in Persian Period Palestine," in 
The Triumph of Elohim: From Yahwisms to Judaisms, ed. D.Edelman (Kampen: Pharos, 1995), 107-126. 

2. E.Meyer, Geschichte des Altertums (Berlin, 1913), 2: 288-285; J. Van Seters, In Search of History: 
Historiography in the Ancient World and the origins of Bibhical History (New Haven: Yale University 
press, 1983); Van Seters, prologue to History: The Yahwist as Historian in Genesis (Louisville): Fortress 
John Knox, 1992). 

3. G. Garbini, History and Ideology in Ancient Israel (London, 1988), 151-152. 

4. Th. L. Thompson, "Conflict Themes in the Jacob Narrative", Semeia 15 (1979): 5-26; Thompson, The 
Origin Tradition of Ancient Israel (Sheffield: SAP, 1987), 51-59, 97-99, 104-1 16. 

5. J.B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Related to the Old Testament (New Haven: Yale University 
pressm 1969), 60-72, 501-503. Hereafter ANET. 

6. ANET, 3. 

7. N. P. Lemche, "The old Testament: A Hellenistic Book?" SJOT 7 (1993): 163-193. 

8. For a discussion of some of these variations, see Th. L. Thompson, "Historiography in the Pentateuch: 
Twenty-Five Years After Historicity", SJOT 13 (1999): 258-283. 

-33:15 6gaO^Al^^(^6^jTtif3^ (9 

.ofblir^l GD§Z$ l&o :io Dlio^b :ie 6§f a6^§ BA£ Klge^l c^g d&^a^DC^ Lfr :ie 

Hjelm, Jerusalem's Rise to soveignty: Zion and Gerizim in Competition (London: T&T dark, 2004) 36-37> 



10. ANET, 60-72; additions to tablets V-VI: ANET, 501-503; W.W. Hallo, The Context of Scripture, vol.1, 
Canonical Compositions From the Biblical World (Leiden: Brill, 1997), 390-402. 

11. W. G. Lambert, "The Great Battle of the Mesopotamian Religious Year: the Conflict in the Akitu House," 
Iraq 25 (1963): 189-190; T. Jacobsen, "Religious Drama in Ancient Mesopotamia", in Unity and Diversity, 
ed. H. Goedicke and J.J.M. Roberts (London, 1975), 65-97; also J.A. Black, "The New Year Ceremonies in 
Ancient Babylon: "Taking Bel by the Hand, and a cultic picnic," Religion 1 1 (1981): 39-59. 

12. ANET, 8 n. 6. 

13. ANET, 104-109, 512-514. 



339 



6r&£3i^^(S@M&<&^ #(31-21 :i4)6g^p§Z/E$£)^^UD&! (u 

Hjelm, The Samaritans and Early Judaism: A Literary Analysis, CIS 7 (Sheffield: SAP, 2000), 148-> Zj£A$N§CJ0 

.<152 
15. ANET, Deliverance of Mankind From Destruction" 10-11. 

^(iU^a^l^EcpBfai^^aa^cl^ios) 0Q^/E^yG^i(Kt^K^3 ^pqobOcp(i6 
jl^a^CdLQE (6?r$jM kMamM^aEtl i(^gglVE^| .OteO^aT ^zfQiZ 

.<ANET, n-i2>^LP^a(^|iSl 

17. ANET, 275-287. 

18. Tablet I. 80-84. 

Th. L. Thompson, and D.Irvin, "The Joseph > Nqj^MCSD^QME^fSL^F^Q^E CB $MJDJ30r\> (l9 

and Moses Narratives" in Israelite and Judean History, ed.J.H. Hayes and J.M. Miller (Philadelphia: 
Zt^&l&dl^&eZ^ 1977), 181-209 

> fc<$MM.$T08} Z OS^adfiSj iliB^uttANET, 1 1 9 > GfHB2^H^BE)^ LK<(pS 

F.Storr, Sophocles: With an English Translation, Loeb Classical Library, 20-21 (London, Heinmann, 1912) 

.< 

20. ANET, 557-558. 

21. On the Cyrus story, see K. Stott, "Herodotus and The old Testament: A Comparative Reading of The 
Ascendancy stories of King Cyrus and David', Journal for the study of the old Testament 16. no. 1 (2002): 

52-78. 

%XWD0^W$?%kdk ifflc^A®d^i&tt0&io9 \QM (no) ^adnOJ^(B©GiZ (22 
\km% ?/feflD^©tS608ipdEtl ia^3rQ^ sM Z\M0W^^7^^<£fisp 
.<<Am^(±i?y®CBiDk%ay#Oaa?>:(2 :iio Khi^Sj $6 (fe^a^a 

23. For the text, see B. Lafont. "Le Roi de Mari et les prophetes du dieu Adad", RA 78(1984p): 7-18. A, 
Malamat, "A Mari prophecy and Nathan's Dynastic Oracle," in Prophecy: Essays Presented to G. Fohrer, 
BZAW 150 (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1980), 68-82. 

24. Seen at the Museum of fine Arts in boston on November 16, 1999, in a display entitled "Pharaohs of the sun: 
Akhnaton, Nefertiti, Tutan-Khamen", Cat, no. 25: Catalogue edited by R. E. Fredd, Y. J. Markowitz and 
S.H. D'Auria (Boston, Bulfinch 1999), 56-58, 208-209. 

25. Pharaohs of the sun, P. 204, cat. No. 12. 

(4J^^f§ctt^(& C&k Z u&/$ j&j ^BOlEflldepA RAMEE tl Softl&ajk (26 
Qya 1319- 1322) dot ^m6m^\ jMiGg 69$Z j tM§ % dYe &0% B^dazQ^Hi 

J. > Z ($8DQ&Q kff$?% e^lSdd^ Gtreed et al. Pharaohs of the sun, pp. 26, 9> J ^UN^ § <1<g ^Tl/Be 

H. Breasted, The Dawn of Conscience (New York: Doubleday, 1933), 281-286; Anet, 281-286; and W.W. 
Q0QZbr)o<Hallo and M. Lichtheim, " The Great Hymn to the Aten", in Context of Seripture, 1: 44-46. 

W.J-Murnane, "The History of Ancient Egypt", in Civilizations of the Ancient Near > /jJ(2|ip DftSLt lE(£8 

.<East, ed.J.M. Sasson (New York: Doubleday, 1995), 2: 712-714 

.<ANET, 418-419> Z K^^^^CbO^^CEaj 0§ (27 

28. ANET, 281-286 

29. Already, Breasted, Dawn of Conscience, 366-370; PAuffret, Hymn d'Egypte et dTsrael: Etudes de structure 
Litteraires, OBO 34 (Freiburg: Universitatsverlag, 1981). 

30. ANET, 446-447. 

31. ANET, 447 n/16. 

32. J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egupt: Historical Documents, vol. 3. (New York, 1906) 

33. J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records, vol. 3. sec. 534, p.225. 



340 



b z&mSB BL^KGaKbSJflL<ANET, 373-375> Z uprifiSE tPMX$®l$WQflMi QftsCPA^GB (34 
anet, 376-> d#)U\NET, 375>/B0H*Q6$^?^ l^ 3 (ll^gS 3 O«(^Eie^0Q^ 

.<ANET, 379> 35$SE |£li§Gk78 

.(23-11) U^dn^SiprGa #) p-tpT#> (35 

36. See, For example, G.L.Mattingly, "the pious sufferer: Mesopotamia's Traditional theodicy and Job's 
Counsellors" in the Bible in Light of Cuneiform Literature: scripture in Context, vol.3, Ancient Near Eastern 
Texts and studies, ed.W.W.Hallo (Lewiston, N.Y.: Mellon, 1990), 305-348. see also the just sufferer 
Compositions in Hallo, Context of Scripture, 485-495, 575-578; also ANET, 589-591. 

37. Dated to Neo-Babylonian period by A. Ungnad, Die Religion der Babylonier und Assryrer (Jena, 1921); for 
English translation, see ANET, 383-385. 

38. ANET, 384. 

39. I.Hjelm and Th. L. Thompson, "The Victory Song of Merneptah: Israel and the people of Palestine, Journal 
For the study of the old Testament 27 (2002): 3-18. 

40. Breasted, Ancient Records, vol. 3, sec. 582, P. 245. 

41. Breasted, Ancient Records vol.3, sec. 594, P. 253. 

42. Breasted, Ancient Records vol.3, sec. 612-613, pp. 261-260. 

43. ANET, 377. 

44. Appendix 1, #22; Pritchard, ANET, 378. 

45. Appendix 1, no.22; ANET, 378. 

46. Breasted, Ancient Records vol.3, sec. 613, p. 262. For the structure of the hymn in three major move,ents, see 
G. Fecht, "Die Israelstele, Gestalt und Aussage," Fontesatque pontes: Eine Festgabe Fur Hellmut Brunner, 
Agypten und Altes Testament 5 (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1983), 106-138. 

47. Breasted, Ancient Records vol.3, sec. 614, p.262. 

48. See J. H. Breasted, The Dawn of Conscience (New York, 1933), 366-370; Text From ANET, 369-371. 

49. Papyrus Sallier I. Compare R-A. Camino, Late Egyptian Miseellanies (Oxford: Clarendon, 1954), 323-325; 
ANET, 378. 

50. Appendix 1, no.23; ANET, 378. 

51. ANET, 370-371. 

52. Fecht, "Israelstele", 129. 

53. Hymn of Victory of Thutmosis III, ANET, 373-375, Citing From 374. Compare Breasted, Ancient Records, 
vol.2, sec. 655-662, pp.262-266. 

j ^^.o^adlJCfe^H^^ka^l^^^Gf ljl^ll6(^l 0^c#A^)fenZ (54 

Breasted, Ancient Records vol.3, sec. 591, pp. 251-252; ANET, 373-> N($JOr\j£ Q^ 6$:} J ^ZJCLE 



.<anet, 373-5 > gooat i^wv^iflmKjmcap&js 

55. Breasted, Ancient Records vol.2,sec. 890-892, pp.360-362; ANET, 375-376. 

56. D. B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times (Princeton: Princeton University press), 137, 201. 

57. Breasted, Ancient Records vol.3, sec. 490, p. 210: "husband of Egypt, rescuing her from every country." See 

Breasted, Ancient Records vol.3, 264 note a. A similar motif is found in the accession speech of Ramses III, 
in Breasted, Ancient Records vol.4, sec.63: ( (k$) Q0fV% kOt)E t! dl K<$ Gfoflf .CMiz^A /^|lS^U 

6feU^3LB&B£ia! a^Lj ^J ^Ul^rlOC$Bil <2£ .'KBEQa %§ afefZg c&)), Breasted, Ancient Records 
vol.3, sec. 580, p.243. 

58. Th. L. Thompson. The Bible in History: How Writers Create a Past (London: Cape, 1999); Thompson, The 
Mythic past: Biblical Archaeology and the Myth of Israel (New York: Basic, 1999), 280 

(295 1 )4§Q^AlfaaJI^pl(3/2 

J.Jeremias, Die Abendmals worte Jesu (Gottingen, > KqM&£$lZ ci /EJ3B 4pi(3^ ^\^f^$i 7, (l 

1935); W.D.Davies and D.CAllison, A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to St 
Matthew (Eding burgh: T&T Clark, 1997), 3: 472-473; and esp. M.Miiller, Kommentar til 

.<Matthaeusevangeliet (Arhus: Universit etsforlag, 2000), 529-533 



341 



J.D.Levenson, The Death and Resurrection of the > T A ^U?^ ffiqhfal) 3^ dfflt Z QjHb Cp©?C^ (2 

Beloved son: the transformation of Child Sacrifice in Judaism and Christianity (New Haven: Yale University 

.<press, 1993), 43-52 

T.Mettinger, The Riddle of the Resurrection: "Dying and Rising" > ^T(^<D^[ aET(3S§ G G0£>% t Y0 OfO (3 

.<Gods in the Ancient Near East, Coniectanea Biblica, no,50(Stockholm: Almqvist & Wikell International, 2001). 

F.O.Hvidlberg-Hansen, Kan'anaeiske myter og legender (Arhus, 1 999), 1 : 1 1 - > ^jpEGr^ fi$8$H$$% (4 

120; O.Lorenz, Ugarit und die Bibel: Kanaanaische Gotter und Religion im alten Testament (Darms stadt, 
1990), 110-115; J.B.Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Related to the old Testament (Princeton 

.<University press, 1969) 129-142. Hereafter ANET 
H.J.Lundager Jensen, > (ffi%^<M%m$ (0^)7% &0%(SSmZCr $^U?%3 dtB0r)Mtt- (5 

.<Gammel testamentlig religion: En indforing (Frederiksberg, 1998) 

ANET: "Dumuzi and > Z W$C& 7% Q# Ml*^G^B^n|'c^g OCXlcbtf $&0kZ $U ©0) (6 

Netherworld": ANET, 109-110; Dispute Between the_Date Palm Enkimdu": ANET, 41-42; "A vision of the 
>yS(iBSEU^^:(3^ ANET, 410-411 and 

U$0 Kl tyMk£^/fy@l±)£3E$ BJjjfar U<ANET, 52-57; "Dumuzi and Innana," ANET, 641-644 

>CBiCDS|<ANET, 644-645 >6r^|bLoStiQ anet 644 > (BA\ E\ |i B30 n@ o ate kEL^4$0 r ^ 

tablet VI, lines 45-7, ) ZT rM^\ J ^^C^>%e^d^<ANET, 645 > YhlM $feC$<ANET, 645 

S.N.Kramer. The Sacred Marriage Rite: Aspects of Faith, Myth, and Ritual in > ^f0R/W0T(^\NET, 84 

.<Ancient Sumer (Bloomington: Indiana University press, 1969) 

7. See especially ANET, 52-57, 641-644. 

8. ANET, 644-645. 

9. On this metaphore, see K. Nielsen, for A Tree There Is Hope (Arhus: Universitetsforlag, 1989). 



(329? )(fi/§)a^(l/3 



1. L. Feuerbach, The Essence of Christianity (New York: Harper, 1956). 

2. J. B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Related to the old Testament (Princeton University Press, 1969), 
8, n. 6 Here after ANET. 

YlO%) Rqg(B^OT4^:<ANET, 523-525; here p. 523 > ^ U^MbifQ*^ $3Dffl&l (3 

.<ANET 163-180; CF. Ex 20: 1-23: 33>/JJ"Gp 5 f&B^tjsElAkfyO 

K3&/%l^(JeaziWJ»CE^^ (4 

/qp^UBA SEE ^aa%ytl Z 1$ 00apj y^^aj^g MkM&Clfri E5UJBA <&E Mxh£Z 
0^ M kCfeaZ Cfea#JC@ l0^H®iEEUTeag^q&£i .BA (§s^mrv%\^^3^ £e 
. <anet, 10-11 > KqDffi?% t YOfaBA (SEE MM$M±U7 E^ &SZU^ 

.(131) % Kl hflfrn G11) 0^l^ff04E|UBA (@£EB8ei$ atg^ thi»3/fe<ANET, 99>^T#) (s 

6. The structure of theological debate in Cain's story is described in Th. L. Thompson, The Bible in History: 
How Writers Create a Past (London: Cape, 1999); Thompson, The Mythic Past: Biblical Anchaeology and 
the Myth of Israel (New Yorkm Basic, 1999), 330-337. 



I. Hjlem, Jerusalem's Rise to sovereignty > tiff 0^ CMD0CE fca©c$fi§i! BAfe E(iE ^$@iE 0CM\ {l 

.<(London, T and T Clark, 2004) 

R. Shwarz, The Curse of The > k^J^Z,MQ ffi&g'^ k/$EX&B ^DjUlXSoM%6 (s 

.<Violent Legacy of Monotheism (University of Chicago press, 1997) 



342 



38-23 :3 /^pC£l)l a Mdcm&BA ^EMdCbk^iaMd^EC^ai aBUJa6acb^l(JBhQ\ 

.( 

10. J. C. Vanderkam, Enoch and the Growth of the Apocalyptic Tradition (Cathilic Bibkical Quarterly 
Monograph Series, no. 2 (Washington, 1984). 

11. H. S. Kvanvig, "Gen 6.3 and the Watcher story", Henoch 25 (2003): 1-20; F. Garcia Martinez and E. J. C. 
Tigchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls Study Edition (Leiden: Brill, 2000), 403-405. 

12. ANET, 42-44, 93-97, 104-106. 

.<ANET94-95>Zl n®flJ©<pClO|a ffifr (l4 

15. On this rich, complex system, see M. Liverani, Power and Propaganda (Copenhagenm 1979); Liverani, 
Prestige and Interest: International Relations in the Near East, Ca. 1600-1100 BCE (Padua, 1990). 

.(6-s) g>f^j(ffl£i(^aZg^3($J djj (i6 

B. Maader, "Ares" in Lexicon des Fruh-> (^^y^^^g^JthO^j Mf%W§ ^0(M00^QikMl (l7 

<griechischen Epos, vol. 1, col. 1246-1265 

Th. L. Thompson, The Origin Tradition of Ancient > ffi$\l#lj!fy)A3&D OQC[D% aC^@P^ t YOfO (l8 

.Israel (Sheffield: SAP, 1987), 158-160 

19. See I. Hjelm and Th. L. Thompson, "The Victory song of Mernptah: Israel and the people of Palestine, 
Journal For the study of the old Testament 27 (2002): 14-15. 

.(is :i9) R^fi^Eafe/^ZBg ^d^H&^flD^ :e) (jgpfle (40-34 122) (tt&tiE ®<gk (20 
G£/38f(a$e c£ C$P$e ^pOCMfr ./I N^^nflO Z (5 *) (jgpfle &Yh kk E $n£B%A 

*a:iJlMl<^(M)^MO^ (21 

M.Prior, The Bible and Colonialism: Amoral Critique, The Biblical > Z \&BJ3C$S 7% (&3eB/k $RG3B 

seminar, no. 48 (Sheffield: SAP, 1997); Prior "The Moral Problem of the Land Traditions of the Bible", 
in Western Scholarship and the History of Palestine (London: Melisende, 1998), 41-81; R.Schwartz, The 
Curse of Cain: The Violent Legacy of Monetheism (University of Chicago press, 1997); Hjelm, Jersalem's 

.<Rise to sovereignty 

22. Th. L. Thompson, The Historicity of the Patriarchal Narratives, BZAW 133 (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1944), 326- 

330. 
See the classical studies of R. Labat. Le caractere religieux de La royaute Assyro-Babylonienne, vol,2, ) (23 
Etudes DAssyriologie (Paris: Librairce DAmeriqur et D'Orient, 1939); BAlbrektson, History and the Gods 
(Lund, 1967); H.W.F.Saggs, Encounter with the Divine in Mesopotamia and Israel (London, 1978); Saggs, 
Sla^EQ ("Assyrian Prisoners of war and the Right to Live," Archiv fur Orient Forschung, 9(1982): 85-93 

Divine war in > (CflSbf aaA iZ§ <3@a4fflz (JJqaa &S U# J ^nlofflrMte a(|$fluf <3f$ldfoa^h#0 

(JrilSL?§©efal/Ekhe old Testament and in the Ancient Near East, BZAW 177 (Berlin: De Gruyter, 1989) 

P.D.Miller, The Divine Warrior in Early Israel, HSM5 (Cambridge: Harvard > g km /EAcQgbtQdi &£&& 
University press, 1973) and of P.D.Miller and J.J.M. Roberts, The Hand of the Lord: A Reassessment of 
>T ^O^aSS) OSS UQ£J^L Ak.<the ARK Narrative (Baltimore: John Hopkins University pressm 1977 
.<F.M.Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic (Cambridge, Harvard University press, 1973) 

24. ANET, 164; line 1-40. 

25. H. Niehr, Der hochste Gott, BZAW 190 (Berlin, 1990). 

26. Thompson. Bible in History; Thompson, Mythic Past, 3 17-322. 



343 



27. L. W. King, Chronicles Concerning Early Babylonian Kings (1907), 2: 87-96; ANET, 119; see also 
P.Jensen, "Ausset Zungsges chichten" in Reallexicon der Assyriologie (1928), 1: 322-324. 

28. ANET, 378. 

29. ANET, 373-375. 

.<anet, 375> UE tpi/f cpbdCl agjOS^) 3®iC^fcd$(i5) d^ipflej 0$ (30 

B.Oded. Mass > Z $Bfcl^#)3lpEl£<l^^ (jl 

£nPflaP9^UDeportation and Deportees in the Neo- Assyrian Empire (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1979), 19,28-30 
Th. L. Thompson, The Early History of the Israelite people, >^rqtftgE^^OfifeU>^g^4£(a(®-K^e 

.<3 rd ed. (Leiden: Brill, 2001), 339-351 

32. ANET, 376-378. 

KQtizAa^'6^i%0l§ I&7-106) gittSfo^pn^Q anet, 534-54i>j ^^^>^K)%6 (33 

.<ANET, 177-180>Yi^(B^^R/^)#^4^(d^3GSl 
O^tpQGPWcf aa(C§(B6e(44 Gl8 Go G)6) 3U^&6^0n5.< J. B. Breasted, Ancient Records, 3: 16-22> (34 

0^1 adi Z^d^^ZA3+f^^M&UQ^ v 0aT ^Q&Z k(&£A 3 + fao^dart 
C$?^l2fa|)t#lifcypU*& (35 

^R/^lGpififiliVNET, 276-281>Z( 
J U<ANET, 281 > RCE^/fc 

>Yi$l#?^g*i6g ^AL^ll<>fe^^^W>OT^Zyif(aSa^[^ibi?06^ 

.<ANET,276 

Th. L. Thompson, "Conflict themes in the Jacob Narratives," > fiG^lSf) $$E(lfiZ cl Gkdfib/% 7% t YOfO (36 

.«emia 15(1979): 5-26 

Q :i9 ii :is) g||(Ii:(jD£iC£UO ^O^d'tafel^Ofg 1&-5 :i7)/&d^Q^gM^ZU|a4@EA (37 

.^DK^ 1425:21 

38. For a different discussion, P. E. Dion, "The Fearnot Formula and Holywar", CBQ 32 (1970): 565-570. 

.(l4)£fll&eqr Z?^i©^RA(33-26:78)l<h^EA\ (39 

40. Hjelm and Thompson, "Victory Song of Merneptah", 10. 

41. As in Akhnaten's long hymn to Aton: J. H. Breasted, The Dawn of Conscience (New York, 1933), 366-370; 
ANET, 369-371. 

2) e^aZ (CGto,r>i /fc a M?% tP a^aaQo 3r $&($&- 149 Kf^§ 
KO/jfc Wo^(l,r>^ OJkQIg (6-2 :i47 Kh^| 




(42 



fi03<S&( 



(381? )£M)^M31&2/3 



Th. L. Thompson, The Bible in History: How Writers Create a Past (London: Cape, 1999); Thompson, ed, 
Jerusalem in Ancient History and Tradition (London: Continuum, 2003); N.P.Lemche, Prelude to Israel's: 
Background and Beginnings of Israelite History and Identity (Peaboy, Mass: Hendrickson, 1998); Lemche, 
The Israelists in History and Tradition (Louisville: John Knox, 1998); I.Finkelstein and NA.Silberman, The 
Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its sacred Texts (New 
York): Free Press, 2001). 



.(33-30 :i)6gaaa£ 



MfeZGXM)M^^^%MB$^ (2 



344 



4. I. Hielm . Jerusalem's Rise to sovereignty (London: Continuum, 2004), 235-239. 
Th. L. Thompson,"If David Had Not Climbed the mount > ffi$fflEd/$$fc ^EAS)£3nC| $i$i(E $% {s 

.<of Olives" in Virtual History and the Bible, ed J.C.Exum (Leiden: Brill, 2000), 42-58 

6. J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical Documents (New York: Russell and Russell, 1906), 3, 
sec. 582, P.245. 

7. Breasted, Ancient Records, 3, sec. 594, P. 253. 

8. Breasted, Ancient Records,3, sec.612-613, 99. 261-262. 

9. See. Th. L. Thompson and D.Irvin, "The Joseph and Moses stories", in Israelite and Judean History, ed. J.H. 
Hayes and J. M. Miller (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1977), 157-212. 

?^A](±lStWQi^/gBLVi(54-53 :9 gSt(Bdi :ii Z)McM$,b) ($%^EUgnfe Q^USi (10 

■>% kc^iMm* \mi £&&&} Ogre 6k o^^^kr&^^cm^^ 

.<Hielm and Thompson, "Victory song of Merneptah" > P$$£ffr&% $SC& r\Sf%d^B\Dfi0^i (l2 

13. Tablet l.i.8-10. 16-19; tablet 11: 304-308; See J.Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Related to the old 
Testament (Princeton University Press, 1969), 73, 97. Here after ANET. 

. Thompson, Bible in History, 65-66 > ^Tq^Sj A$§ C| aSfcUb^g (l4 

\MMB.t£r<&/E^m<&K Egft&t A &d o^z GfeA| a^o|fii(^^.^aL/Be (is 

Z i^| Yak) ufeti|p3R Md$ Mbi- 25 :6 3G§afli cft£M)g o9$Z (|^ff nZ g&Q£ 
datMi&kd$pZ. g^aTOf j U<g Z 0L§ tito§ Affih% idEaOUaoffl ^M&p3gjSi 

S£La ilBLB6^B0iF>iO^4Olg dblao^L/^ 
1 K |g$@!>E(^ 3U3B6iC£ £S5g^0p3®fjagX^6Yh cbwa^nBU 

16. E. Jensen, Die Unendliche Geschichte (Stuttgrat, 1979). 

17. Hjlm, Jerusalem's Rise to sovereignty, 93-159. 

18. Hjlm, Jerusalem's Rise to sovereignty. 

^aB^zGSIjji^q (19 

GAuld, Kings Without Privilege: David and Moses in > .0^^a^p3feSC%^i" CfeP g&tfSfc&L] H0E 

.<the story of the Bible's Kings (Edingburgh: T and T Clark, 1994). 

20. L.H.Schiffmann, Reclaiming the Dead sea Scrolls: the History of Judaism, the Background of Christianity, 
the Lost Library of Qumran (Philadelphia: Jewish publication Society, 1994); J. A. Goldstein, I-II 
Maccabees: A New Translation With Introduction and Comentary, Anchor Bible 41 (Garden City, N.Y.: 
Doubleday, 1977); E. Nodet, A Search for the Origins of Judaism: From Joshua To the Mishnah. (Sheffield: 
SAP, 1997), 140-147; Hjelm, Jerusalem's Rise to Sovereignty, 254-293. 

21. Hjlem, Jerusalem's Rise to Sovereignty, 254-293 deals comprehensivly with the the problem of the rhetoric 
of 1-2 Maccabees. 

22. F. A. J. Nielsem, The Tragedy in History, Copenhagen International Seminar 4(Sheffield: SAP, 1997). 

23. P. Briant, From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire (Winono Lake, Ind: Eisen brauns, 
2002), 43F. 

24. Hielm and Thompson, "Victory song of Merneptah," 3-18. 

.<A. Hjlem, Jerusalem's Rise to Sovereignty, 87, 108> \M%(8?% (M^EA|S%al4CMS8pZ {&%$&) (25 




345 



.A.Hjlem, Jerusalem's Rise to Sovereignty, 165>^rG^6^^Q^6 ^ZCBfi^FaZ,!^)^ (26 

27. See Thompson, Bible in History, 237-244. 

W^.^^^%kM^(2s^^^^^Z^a3Zl{M(m^E J 06iA (28 
$#|$re BL6Mj ^(liGidDiDSEaj ^n7^Il(fi(S^Z 6^X200000) k>e&$fe$ 

> j &§f ^JLWTqbt 0&M g&ry rvG^CMamz. LqpBiC^^ Kfcla?^ Lq®^ 

Th. L. Thompson, "4Q Testimonia and Bible Composition: A Copenhagen Lego- Hypothesis," in Qumran 
Between the old and New Testament, ed. F. H. Cryer and Th. L. Thompson, CIS 6 (Sheffield: SAP, 1998), 

.<265. 

29. W. W. Hallo, the Context of Scripture(Leiden: Brill, 1997),1: 575-588. 

30. Hallo. Context of Scripture, 1: 573-575. 

31. ANET, 407-410. 

32. ANET, 405-407. 

33. I. Hjelm, "Brothers Fighting Brothers" in Jerusalem in Ancient History and Tradition, ed. Th. L. Thompson 
(Sheffield: SAP, 2003), 197-222. 



(419? ) 



1. M. Liverani, "Partire Sul Carro, Per il deserto," AION 32 (1972): 403-415; J. Sasson, "On Idrimi and 
Sarruwa the scribe," in Nuzi and the Hurrians ed.D.Owens (Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 1981), 309- 
324; M.Dietrich and O.Loretz, "Die Inschrift der Statue des Konings Idrimi Von Alalah," UF 13 (1981): 
201-268. More recently, N.P.Lemche, Prelude to Israel's Past: Background and Beginning of Israelite 
History and Identity (Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson, 1998), 157-165. 

2. J. B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Related to the old Testament (Princeton University press, 1969), 
373-375. Here after ANET. 

3. ANET, 253-254. 

4. M. Lichtheim, Aancient Egyption Literature, vol.2, The New Kingdom (Berkely: University of California 
press, 1976), 200-203. 

5. ANET, 281. 

6. F. O. Hvidberg-Hansen, Kanaamaiske myter og legender (Arhus, 1990), 1: 81-996 for an english 
transalation W. W. Hallo, The Context of Scripture, vol.1 Canonical Composition From the Biblical World 
(Leiden: Brill, 1997), 255-264. 

7. J. H. Charlesworth, ed. The Messiah: Developments in Earliest Judaism and Christianity. (Minneapolis: 
Fortress, 1987), XV; J. J. M.Roberys "the old Testament's, Cantribution to Messianic Expectations" in 
Charlesworth, The Messiah, 39-51. 

:35 13 :3) EfflPfe (frs :6 iJ6 13 6 :4) k^&GiM ($L5 :40 130 :30 141 :28) 3$| dflfe Z QD^Q&H^A (8 

Li6 U4 :l) 3&CM$0 fife (fc U6 Ql G> :26 Ul V :24) 6§ §^t6 M Z l^^d^L) &&QZ) $j(25 

^(ti^EL) ^/^El)^ :23) DGlC^tO M Z (a ^fecfr^El) 1^9 A) tip0£$fee l&2:19 

MM :3) a^ Ql :45) M %1 :22) D^C^O l& :16 13 13 :12 135 U:lo) 6§ d&$D M Z (OC^El) 

.(42 :6) D/Ssef^i aflfe Udv U0 :132 132 139 :89 iJO :84 IB :28 U :20 131 :18 12 :l) Kfiftja 



cbMn^r(2p(i6- 15:19 6gao^i^/T(|)tA|2if>^RAI^£a^OYiD»gj t?l©0(ae3zfm> (9 



10. Talmon, "Concepts of Mashiach and Messianism in Early Judaism." In Charlesworth, the Messiah 79-115; 
here 180. 

11. Talmon, "Concepts of Mashiach and Messianism" 81-83: see Further Talmon, "Kingship and the Ideology 
of the state", in king, Cult and Calendar in Ancient Israel (Jerusalem, 1986), 9-38; Talmon, "Type of 
Messianic Expectation at the Turn of the Era," in king, Cult and Calendar 202-224. 

12. Talmon, "Concepts of Mashiach and Messianism" 84. ( kfMsk&^fa$efc&^&)^ Cj ^Q^O^aralS 

.Qi5$0t(Mi §^f al^?/%()kfo?d&fi^%%Zik@az^$. M. Buber, Drei Rrden fiber das Judentum 
(Frankfurt, 1911), 88-91. 



346 



1 3 . Talmon, "Concepts of Mashiach and Messianism" 84. ( B g fiX$a?Yl T Mi <Xf of^fe AfJNJzctt^iZ, B^TOTC) 
/Kfik. 3)- J- G. Heintz, "Royal Traits and Messianic Figures: A thematic and Iconographical Approach 
(Mesopotamian Elements)," in Charlesworth, The Messiah, 52-66 ( yYE^t^ST YAYXjEjjfr? /Sjf al &ftfk)7g 

(%Iag a§ 3mg$f $g Aji)ei(|gA /HB$S&r eSWj)e^id«ia^l cfer 6a& j ^pU^LD^Qi. s, Talmon, 

"Der Gesalbte Jahwes-biblische und Friih-nach biblische Messias und Heilseer warning", in Heilserwar 
tungen bei Juden und Christen (Regen sburg, 1982), 27-43. 

14. Talmon, "Concepts of Mashiach and Messianism"85. 

15. J. H. Charlesworth, "From Messianology to Christology: problems and prospect," in the Messiah, 3-35; here 3 ( 

aYBjaO^UMij A&Z (fejstf rf idS^aa $&a01^ (sj acbiE c^C^iij^t^Ys fUy&jy&Ty a\E(30$k$. 

"Messiahs and Messianic Figures in Proto-Apocalypticism", in Charlesworth, The Messiah, 67-75. 

16. W.S.Green, "Introduction: Messiah in Judaism: Rethinking the Question," in Judaisms and Their Messiah at 
the Turn of the Christian Era, ed. Neusner, W.S.Green, and E.S.Frerichs (Cambridge University press, 
1987), 1-13; here 6. This critique is also appropriate to the article by De Jonge, "Messiah"in Anchor Bible 
Dictionary, 4: 777. ( O^t^/^aW^^^^^WI^lBaarf/^ EojS^^G^jf MMfe 

17. Th. L. Thompson, "The Intellectual Matrix of Early Boblical Narrative: Inclusive Monotheism in Persian 
Period Palestine", in The Triumph Elohim: From Yahwisms to Judaisms, ed.D.Edelman (Kampen: pharos, 
1995), 107-124; Edelman, "Historiography in the Pentateuch: Twenty-Five Years After Historicity", Sjot 13, 
no.2(1999): 258-283. 

.<i. G. Heintz, "Royal Traits", in Charlesworth, The Messiah, 64> /T(i$ya 562- 664) fi301$a@E} 0fo> (l8 

19. Talmon, "Concepts of Mashiach and Messianism", 113, against, for example, A.Laato, A star Is Rising: The 
Historical Development of the old Testament Royal Ideology and the Rise of the Jewish Messianic 
Expectaions, University of South Florida International Studies in Formative Christianity and Judaism 
(Atlanta: scholars, 1997), 236-260 ( (E $fok RA12r(|)gXi3pG^f@Z g M^SSL <%6 I^KiCC^ <pB0l 



Z0a3D^Z 0/%q ®?3nr m/8Bfc.VQ A.Laato, "About Zion I Will Not Be Silent": The Book of Isaiah as 

an Idelogical Unity, Coniectanea Biblican, Old Testament Series 44 (Lund: Almqvist & Wikseu, 1998), 
121-123. 

(35 BaeJJBO 0j^W$G& 7% Urhe Old Testament's Contribution, p. 40 > E ]^/E$/WQ- (20 

. K/fc A^nELKJ Adjfe k&% tfffitmz. G££G ^ 

21. Thompson, The Bible in History: The Mythic past, 217-225. 

$& :45-28 :44 #&$(Mo^^3^E£^^ QiJfrn, (22 

B0ilS ^N^^^/BDE$MrfcEL§ e^atiLbKi Yh yfe ((|>Aa0felK§) o^g G& cp 

.OS^Qji^As :49-20 :48 ^H)l0Ug0dDI?3/a 

> v4pr6^<p."nl6YD2£^ G $tifr<$tifc£eo& G^UiGStf^Z dt&<pfeZ.St^0^33g (23 

Islamic Fundamentalism Reconsidered: A Critical Outline of Problem, Ideas, and Approaches, South Asia 
Bulletin, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East (Durham,N.C.:Duke University 

.<press, 1995), 40-41 

24. F. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scrolls Translated (Leiden: Brill, 1994), 34. ( Z Pfl5§B/fe titi0Bpfr\J0L 

CD3 /BzpEQ <j 5 QB)$ff B$aM&0(B . a AabD6 J^kqx^EUQ kke$0kg&$ gpfj 0?<£t 

Z0cj- L.H.Shiffman, "Messianic Figures and Ideas in the Qumran Scrolls" in Charlesworth, The Messiah, 
116-129, here 117. 

25. Alter, The David Story: A translation with Commentary of 1 and 2 Sumuel (New York: Norton, 1999) ( ^4> 

a^aSJ^GJfcjYa/^agzrVl r$2:ii ogaoT^ej U6/&A tg^A 

26. See I.Hjlem, Jerusalem's Rise to Sovereignty (London: Continuum, 2004). 

J i^%^QpiCA/2*b^T k 00 ^^mMklOtlMmiLQ3QZ<Heintz, Messiah, 63> (27 
-3 :29 U4-13 :22 IJ4 :18) KF^aQl7 :33) &&M 1&-8 :24 IJ4 :23 ) df&M k RAftc$^e[ d!K£$ 

^Z^Udd^a^c^[G8S] afctD/feC^lfE^E^aj ILJb Qs :3)a^p|Qio-9:i6)a^ 

.(9 :49) 1 



347 



.<Thomas, Bible in history, 23 7-244 > /TGJjM) ^(d$T)/%Jfi> §j$ (28 



29. See Hjelm, Jerusalem's Rise to Sovereignty, 241. 

30. Thompson, "Twenty-Five Years after Historicity," JSOT 1999. 

31. The term is used in anthropology and is discussed by C. Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York 
1973), 91-99. 

32. See Further, Th. L. Thomson, "If David Had not Climbed the Mount of Olives", Virtual History and the 
Bible, ed. J.Cheryl Exum (Leiden: Brill, 2000) 42-58. 

33. For an earlier discussion of this theology, see N. P. Lemche, "Because They Have Cast Away the Law of the 
Lord of Hosts-or we and the Rest of the World: the Authors who Wrote the old Testament" Scandinavian 
Journal For the old Testament, 1999. 



(475? JEs^qp/^cp^GBfti 



1. M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature (Berkely: University of California press, 1975), 1:17 

2. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 1: 24. 

3. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 1: 122, 1: 16. 

4. J. B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastren Texts Related to the old Testament (Princeton University press, 1969), 
7-8. Here after ANET. 

5. Th. L. Thompson, "Jerusalem City of God's Kingdom; Common Tropes in the Bible and the "Ancient Near 
Eastren" Islamoc studies 40 (2001): 634-635. 

6. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Treasure, 1: 136. 

7. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Treasure, 1: 172. 

8. W. W. Hallo, Context of Scripture (Liden: Brill, 1997), 1: 77-82. 

9. Papyrus Bulaq 17, Stanza 4, in ANET, 365-367. 

10. J.L.Foster, Hymns, Prayers and songs: An Anthology of Ancient EgyptianLyric Poetry (Atlanta: Scholars, 
1995), 135-136. 

11. Hallo, Context of Scripture 1: 109, Lines 54-57. ( /^chafo^/k^Y^CD <&($£ Q^qM^a /^l£IJT/ft 

12. Foster, Hymns, Prayers and songs, 48-53, stele of Amenmose, Louver no. 286. 

13. ANET, 371-372. 

14. Hallo, Context of Scripture, 1: 62, col. 2. 

15. Foster, Hymns, Prayers and songs, 58-65. 

16. Foster, Hymns, Prayers and songs, 149-150. 

17. Foster, Hymns, Prayers and songs, 151. 

18. Foster, Hymns, Prayers and songs, 151-152. 

19. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Treasure, 2: 128. 

20. Foster, Hymns, Prayers and songs, 118-122. 

21. ANET, 377. 

22. ANET, 378. 

23. ANET, 378-379. 

24. Hallo, Context of Scripture, 1: 1 15-122. 

25. B.R. Foster, From Distant Days: Myths, Tales, and Poetry From Ancient Mesopotamia (Bethesda: CDL, 
1995), 316-323; Hallo, Context of Scripture, 1: 492-493; Anet, 602-604. 

26. Hallo, Context of Scripture, 1 : 485. 

27. ANET, 426. 

28. ANET, 177-178. 

29. ANET, 397. 

30. B.R. Foster, Before the Muses (Bethesda: CDL, 1996), 2: 521-524, lone 12-15. 

3 1 . Foster, Before the Muses, 2:589. 

32. Foster, Before the Muses, 2: 578-579. 

33. Foster, Before the Muses, 2: 606. 

34. Foster, Before the Muses, 2: 617. 

35. the inscription appears in several copies or close variations; cf. D. D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of 
Assyria and Babylonia (University of Chicago press, 1927), 2: 253, par 659 E. 

36. ANET, 307. 

37. ANET, 384. 



348 



38. Hallo, Context of Scripture, 2: 147 F. 

39. Hallo, Context of Scripture, 2: 148-150. 

40. The citation Is taken from P.Briant, From Cyrus to Alexander: the History of the Persian Empire (Winona 
Lake, Ind: Eisenbrauns, 2002), 166. 

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57. F. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll Translated: The Qumran Texts in English (Leiden: Brill, 1994), 
104-105. 

58. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll, 108-109. 

59. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll, P. 116-117. 

60. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scrol, P. 189. 

6 1 . Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scrol, 203-204. 

62. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scrol, 204. 

63. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll, 205. 

64. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll, 225. 

65. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll, 303-304. 

66. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll, 337-338. 

67. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll, 365. 

68. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll, 384-385. 

69. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll, 394. 

70. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll, 395. 

71. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll, 436. 

72. Garcia Martinez, The Dead Sea Scroll, 437. 

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1. L. King, Chronicles Concerning Early Babylonian Kings (London, 1907), 87-96; B.Lewis, The Sargon 
Legend ASORDS 4(Missoula, 1980); W.W.Hallo, The Book of the People, BJS 225 (Atlanta: Scholars, 
1991), 130-131;ANET, 119; W.W. Hallo, Context of Scripture (Leiden: Brill, 1997), 1:461. 

2. G. Dossin, "LTnscription de Fondation de Yahdunlim, roi de Mari, "syria 32 (1935): 1-28; A.Malamat, 
"Campaigns to the Mediterranean by Iahdunlim and other early Mesopotamian Rulers", As 16 (1965): 365- 
372; ANET, 556-557. 

3. Luckenbill, Annals of Sennacherib, 116; D.J.Wiseman, A NEW Stela of Assur Nasirpal II," Iraq 14 (1952): 
24-44; ANET, 558. 

4. D. D. Lukenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, vol.2 (University of Chicago oress, 1926- 
1927). Here after Luckenbill, VOL. 2. 

Luckenbill, vol. 2, >?/B^^®(^?^/0^6^pL^4!^fea&Udd^.<Luckenbill, Vol. 2, sec. 647-659 > (5 

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^O6§dO|^0jji^|M£6 vol.2, sec 666-677 

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6. F. H. Weissbach, Weissbach, Die Inschriften Nebukadnezars Him Wadi Barissa Und Naahr el-kelb (Leipzig, 
1906); ANET, 307. 

7. ANET, 308-311. 

8. C. T. Gadd, "The Harran Inscription of Nabonidus', Anatolian Studies 8 (1958): 35-92; W. Rollig, 
"Erwagungen neuen Stelen Konig Nabonids", ZA 22(1964): 218-260; ANET, 562-3 11. ANET, 562-563. 

.l<DfedStoil#a^l3$§p|^ (9 

10. ANET, 315-316 

11. ANET, 316-317. 

I (MO^\ ; $Ai^O^^P%\J^(^!^?^^^ .<Hallo, Context of Scripture, 1: 185-192> (l2 
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350 



H.Cancik, Mythische und historische Wahrbeit; Cancik, Grundziige der >T A %)"?% ^rCffe^Pi(EX3fe 

. <Hethitischen und alttestamentlichen Geschichtsschreibung (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1976) 

13. Hallo, Context of Scripture, 1: 192-193; R.H. Beal, "Kurunta of Tarhuntassa and the Imperial Hittite 
Mausoleum", Anatolian Studies 43 (1993): 29-39; S.Heinhold-Krahmer, "Zur Bronzetafel aus Boghazkoy 
und ihrem historischen Inhatt", Arkiv Fur Orient For schung 38-39 (1991-1992): 138-159. 

14. H.Hoffner, "The Last Days of Khattusha" in The Crisis Years: The Twelfth Century BCE: From Beyond the 
Danube to the Tigris, ed.W.A.Ward (Dubuque Kandall Hunt, 1992), 46-52; Hallo, Context of Scripture, 1: 
192-193. 

15. S. Smith. The Statue of Idrimi(London, 1949); J. Sasson", on Idrimi and Sarruwa the scribe", in Nuzi and 
the Hurrians, ed. D. Owens (Winona Lake, Ind: Eisenbrauns, 1981), 309-324; M.Dietrich and O.Loretz, 
"Die Inschriften der Statue des Konigs Idrimi von Alalah", UF 13 (1981): 201-268; ANET, 557-558; Hallo, 
Context of Scripture, 1: 479-480. 

16. S. Parker, Stories in Scripture and In Scriptions:Comparative studies on Narratives in Northwest Semitic 
Inscriptions and the Hebrew Bible (OXFORD University press, 1997), 76-83; J.Tropper, Die Inschriften von 
Zincirli, ALASP 6 (Miinster: Ugarit Verlage, 1993), 27-46; W.W.Hallo, the Context of Scripture, vol.2, 
Monumental Inscriptions (Leiden: Brill, 2000), 147 f 

17. M. L. Barre. "An Analysis of the Royal Blessing in the Karatepe Inscription," Maarav 3(1982): 177-194; 
K.L.Younger, "the Phoenician of Azatiwada: An Integrated Reading", Jss 43 (1998): 11-47; Hallo, Context 
of Scripture, 2: 148-150. 

18. S. Moscati, The Phoenicians (New York: Abbeville, 1988),305; Hallo, Context of Scripture, 2: 151-152. 

19. J.Green Field, "The Zakir Inscription and the Dankhied", Proceedings of the Fifth World COngress of Jewish 
Studies (Jerusalem: World Union of Jewish Studies, 1972), 1: 174-191; B.Otzen, "the Aramaic Inscriptions", 
ed. P. J. Rijs and M. L. Buhl (Copenhagen: National museet, 1990), 267-318; Hallo, Context of Scripture, 2: 
155. 

20. Tropper, Inschriften, 54-97; H.Nieht, "ZumTotenkult der Konige von Sam'al im 9. und8.Jh.V.Chr,SEL 
11(1994): 58-73; Hallo, Context of Scripture, 2: 155. 

21. Tropper, Inschriften, 98-139; KYounger, "panammuwa and Bar-Rakib: Two Structural analyses", JANES 
18 (1986): 91-100; Hallo, Context of Scripture, 2: 158-160. 

22. Tropper, Inschriften, 132-139; Younger, "Panammuwa", 100-103; Hallo, Context of Scripture, 2: 160-161. 

23. R. Doussaud, Les monuments Palestiens et Judaiques au Musee du Louvre (Paris, 1912), 4-22; H.Donner 
and W,R611ig, Kanaanaische und Armaische Inschriften, Text 181; J.Gibson, Textbook of Syrian Semitic 
Inscriptions (OXFORD, 1971), 1: 71-82; E. Ullendorf, "The Moabite stone", in Documents From old 
Testament Times, ed. D.W.Thomas (New York, 1958), 195-197; W. F. Albright, "The Moabite Stone". 
ANET, 320-321; K. A. D. Smelik, "The Inscription of King Mesha, in Hallo, Context of Scripture, 2: 137- 
138. 

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.(7:36)$ILRfle 
G Athas, The Tel Dan Inscription: A > a $| <|^Q gPlGpi® I %P&B &S)?Z ^JnP&Jf $&&J (25 
a^Z^(lKW£ri&1p3^(i^ Reappraisal and a New Interpretation, CIS(Sheffield: SAP, For thcoming) 

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351 



3dp<^ 



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356 



S. Talmon, 'Types of Messianic Expectation at the Turn of the Era,' in S. Talmon, King, Cult and Calendar in Ancient 

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357 



W. Wrede, Das Messiasgeheimnis in den Evangelien: Zugleich ein Beitrag zum Verstdndnis des 

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(1998), 11-47. 



358 



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The Settlement of Sinai and the Negev in the Bronze Age: Beihefte zum Tubinger Atlas des vorderen Orients 

8 (Wiesbaden: Dr. Reichert Verlag, 1975). 

The Settlement of Palestine in the Bronze Age: Beihefte zum Tubinger Atlas des vorderen Orients 34 

(Wiesbaden: Dr. Reichert Verlag: 1979). 

The Origin Tradition of Ancient Israel: The Literary Formation of Genesis and Exodus 1-23 Sheffield: 

Sheffield Academic Press, 1987). 

(with F.J. Goncalvez and J.M. Van Cangh), Toponymie Palestinienne: Plaine de St. Jean D'Acre et Corridor 

de Jerusalem: Publications de LTnstitut Orientaliste de Louvain 37 (Louvain-La-Neuve: Institut Orientaliste, 

1988). 

Early History of the Israelite People: From the Written and Archaeological Sources: Studies in the History of 

the Ancient Near East 4 (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1992; pb. 2000; Arabic Translation: Beirut 1995).** 

(with N. Hyldahl, ed.), Dodehavsteksterne og Bibelen: Forum for bibelsk eksegese 8 (Copenhagen: Museum 

Tusculanum, 1996). 

(with F. Oyer, ed.), Qumran Between the Old and New Testaments: Copenhagen International Seminar 6 (Sheffield: 

Sheffield Academic Press, 1998). 

*The Bible in History: How Writers Create A Past (London: Jonathan Cape, 1999; pb. 2000) = The Mythic 

Past: Biblical Archaeology and the Myth of Israel (New York: Basic Books, 1999; pb. 2000; Arabic 

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(with H. Tronier, ed.), Frelsens Biografisering: Forum for bibelsk eksegese 13 (Copenhagen: Museum 

Tusculanum, 2004). 

(with M. Muller, ed.), Historie og Konstruktion: Festskrift til Niels Peter Lemche i anledning af 60 drs 

fodslsdagen den 6. September 2005: Forum for bibelsk eksegese 14 (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum, 

2005). 

*The Messiah Myth: The Near Eastern Roots of Jesus and David (New York: Basic Books; 2005; London: 
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